【PPM】そのままで大丈夫?ライバルに勝つために必要な分析方法を解説!

ポートフォリオ・マトリックスとは

プロダクト・ポートフォリオ・マトリックス(以下 PPM)とは、米国のコンサルティング会社のボストン・コンサルティング・グループが考案したマトリックスです。PPMでは市場の成長性と相対市場シェアの2つの軸と高低で2×2のマトリックスを作成します。
製品は作成したマトリックスにより、4つの象限に分類されます。そして、象限毎に投資の判断を行い、成長を目指します。では4つの象限を見ていきましょう。

 

・花形製品 (市場の成長性:高い 相対市場シェア:高い)

花形事業は市場の成長性も自社の市場シェアも高く、大きな利益を得ることが出来ます。しかし、他社との競争が激しいため、多額の設備投資が必要になり、キャッシュフロー(儲け)はあまり望めません。シェアを維持しつつ投資を行い、「金のなる木」を目指します。

 

・金のなる木 (市場の成長性:低い 相対市場シェア:高い)

金のなる木は市場の成長率は望めないが、過去の業務や投資の結果、市場シェアが高く、多額のキャッシュフローが生まれる。この資金を投資して「問題児」を「花形」に、「花形」を「金のなる木」に成長させます。

 

・問題児 (市場の成長性:高い 相対市場シェア:低い)

問題児は今後の事業計画について判断が求められる象限です。金のなる木で得た利益を投資して市場シェアを高めて「花形」となるか、「負け犬」にならないよう事業から撤退するか判断します。

 

・負け犬 (市場の成長性:低い 相対市場シェア:低い)

市場が衰退期に入り、自社の市場シェアも低いため、現在も将来もキャッシュフローを生み出さないお荷物が、負け犬です。市場シェアの維持だけでも多額の投資が必要になってしまうため、事業を撤退することが望ましいです。

 

貴方の会社はどこに属する?

さて、PPMについて説明いたしましたが、貴方の所属する企業、展開している事業や製品はどこに分類されますか? 業界NO.1で花形製品ばかりの会社、老舗で過去の成果から金のなる木がたくさん生えているといった会社もあれば、問題児ばかりでここから成長という会社もあります。

では、なぜPPMを使用して分析するのかというと、理論的に自社サービスを市場に位置付けて、成長戦略を練る為です。自社の製品がどこに位置付けられのか知り、どうすればライバル企業に勝てるのかを考える材料として活用してみてください。

 

貴方自身はどこに属する? 自身を分析しよう

ポートフォリオ・マトリックスは製品だけではなく、自身の人材としての市場価値を推し量る方法として使用できます。貴方は今どのような業務内容で、どのようなスキルを手に入れることができますか?

貴方のやっている仕事は、今後も需要がある仕事なのか、同じスキルを持った人は社会に多いのか少ないのか、といった軸で分析してみて下さい。分析後に危機感を覚えた人もいるのではないでしょうか。

危機感を覚えた人は人材として成長できるよう1歩踏み出してはいかがですか? 自己投資をしたり、新しいビジネスに触れる為に転職してみたり、勇気を出して起業するのも良いかもしれません。市場価値を高め、金のなる木を目指しましょう。

 

<参考リンク>

お店が「ロッカー」「クローク」に早変わり!?日常から生まれるビジネスアイデア起業アイディアの考え方

経営資源と言えば、ヒト、モノ、カネ、情報? いいえ、まだ2つあります・・・

ビジネスがうまくいかない致命的な理由

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