2種類の顧客

顧客を大きく分けると、2種類になります。

「見込客」「既存客」です。

それぞれ順番に見ていきましょう。

見込客

見込客とは、まだあなたの商品・サービスを買ったことが無いが、今後買う可能性のある人のことです。企業の存続に欠かせない活動の一つが、見込客の獲得です。

見込客をさらに大きく2つに分けると「今すぐ客」と「これから客」に分けられます。「今すぐ客」とは、アプローチすればすぐに顧客化する人のことです。「これから客」は、すぐには顧客化しないがいずれ顧客化する可能性のある人のことです。

この2つの軸で計測をしながら、多くの見込客を獲得し、ビジネスを成長さていく必要があります。
実際に見込客の計測のやり方を見ていきます。

ステップ1 「今すぐ客」を計測する

「今すぐ客」がどの経路であなたの商品・サービスを知ったのか、そして属性を調べます。

ステップ2 「これから客」を計測する

一度会社に対してコンタクトをとったことがある、つまり興味を持ったことがあるので、掘り起こせば顧客化する可能性が十分にあります。
また、将来あなたのサービス・製品に対する購入意欲が高まれば、「今すぐ客」に変わるため、その時に競合にとられないようにしておかなければ損失になります。
しかし、相手がしつこいと感じてしまうと逆効果ですから、適度な距離感と温度感でアプローチを続ける必要があります。

・「これから客」の温度感を把握する

・「これから客」が顧客化するまでのステップを整理し、それぞれの「これから客」が今どの状態にあるのか把握する

というプロセスが必要です。

例えば、対面や電話でヒアリングしたり、メールに対する反応やWebサイトに再度アクセスしているかどうかなどのオンラインでの行動履歴を追跡したり、記録する仕組みをつくり、スコアリング*1形式で把握することができます。

*1 スコアリング:個々の見込客が持つ、自社への将来的な「価値」を予測し、その価値に準じて順位をつけること。順位付けは、デモグラフィックデータやBANT条件と、マーケティングやセールスキャンペーンに対する見込客の行動解析を組み合わせて行う。(出典:マーケティング用語集)

既存客

既存客とは、既に1度でもあなたの商品・サービスを買ったことがある人のことです。複数回、継続的に買ってくれる既存客のことを「リピーター」「常連客」などと呼びます。
一般的に、新規の見込客を増やすことに熱心な傾向が見られますが、実は既存客へのアプローチの方が重要だと言っても過言ではありません。

なぜなら、見込客を獲得するよりも、既存客に買ってもらう方が10倍コストがかからないからです。
見込客を顧客化するには、様々な宣伝広告が必要ですし、それだけの広告費が必要になります。それに対して、既存客はもう既にあなたの商品・サービスを買ったことがあり、理解しているため、同じものを再販するにせよ、新商品を紹介するにせよ、買ってもらいやすいのです。
また、あなたの商品・サービスに心から満足している熱烈なファンができれば、最終的にはいわゆる口コミによって、広告費を使わずに、ファンが新たな見込客を連れて来てくれることになります。

もしあなたに既存客がいるならば、まずは既存客にいかに満足してもらってファンになってもらえるかどうか、あらためて考えてみることをお勧めします。

まとめ

見込客も既存客もどちらも欠かすことはできません。なぜなら、どんなビジネスもお客様がいなければ成り立たないからです。どんなに優れた商品・サービスでも、それを気に入って買うお客様がいなければ成り立ちません。
見込客の獲得と、既存客に対する活動の最適なバランスは、ビジネスの状況やステージによって変わるので一概には言えません。

80:20の法則は意識しておくことをお勧めします。

売上の80%は、20%のファンでつくられており、

売上の20%は、80%の残りの既存客でつくられている。

あなたにまだ既存客がいないなら、まずは見込客の獲得に80%の労力を注ぐべきでしょう。もう既に十分な既存客がいるなら、ファンをいかに増やし、満足させるかに注力すれば良いでしょう。

まずは今、どんな状況なのかを冷静に分析してみてください。

<参考リンク>
マーケティングを学ぶことで変わる未来-フィリップ・コトラー提唱の考え方-

顧客ロイヤリティを測るフレームワーク:Net Promoter Score(NPS)とは

売上アップを実現する営業ツールを徹底解説

業務改善の4原則、ECRS(イクルス)の原則とは?改善事例とツールについて

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