戦術を正しく導く効果測定の方法 -基礎編-

戦略を正しい方向へと導くためには、適切な戦術を立てなければなりません。

適切な戦術とは、具体的な活動レベルまで落とし込んだ活動のベースとなるものです。

そして、それは事業を進行させながら結果に応じて軌道修正をかけていくことが重要になりますが一方で最初の戦略時点で正しい戦術を立てることは不可能です。

その時は正しいと思っていても、やってみると違ったり、もっとより良い方法が見えてくることがほとんどです。

それを勘から確信へと変換させるためには、その判断根拠となる情報が必要になります。

例えば、メインで売れると思っていた商品よりも他の商品の方が注目度が高かったり、集客効果がオフラインよりオンラインの方が効率的だったりなどですね。

その結果に気づかず、事業戦術を修正しなければ、より良い結果を導くことはできません。

今回は、正しい戦術を導くためにみるべき指標とその効率的な効果測定方法をご紹介します。

 

正しいPDCAサイクルの回し方

Plan(計画)→ Do(実行)→ Check(評価)→ Act(改善)の 4段階を繰り返すことによって、業務を継続的に改善できることはすでにご承知のことと思います。

しかし、事業の推進にあたりPDCAを回していきたいとは思っているが、Check(評価)の部分で時間がかかり不十分なままA(改善)に移行してしまっているケースは多々あります。

ここでの問題点は、Check(評価)の部分にあるように思われがちですが、実はPlan(計画)の段階で、Check(評価)をどのようにするかを考えられていないことにその原因が潜んでいます。

なぜなら、Plan(計画)に基づきDo(実行)を行いますが、Do(実行)の結果をどう評価するのかを後から見ようとしても、そのデータをとる仕組みがない状態では後から既存の情報を精査する手間が発生したり、そもそもデータが取れていない状況に陥るからです。

大切なのは、Do(実行)結果から次のアクションを行うために必要な情報を精査し、計測できる仕組みをPlan(計画)の中で考え、Do(実行)時に実装することです。

また、その検証に必要なデータを自動で集計するようにしておくと、実際の活動に集中できるようになりより効率的にPDCAサイクルを回していくことが可能となります。

 

縦と横のクロスで考える、効果測定の仕組み

では、実際の効果測定についてですがどの軸で測定するかがポイントとなりますが、一般的には、「経路」と「ステージ」のクロス軸で計測します。

「経路」とは、接点となった経路のことで具体的にはGoogleなどの検索エンジン、Google AdWordsなどの有料検索広告、バナー、ブログなどの記事、人からの紹介、電話営業、メディア掲載、展示会などがあります。

これはBtoBかBtoCなのか、どんな事業内容なのかなどによって変わってきますがビジネスにおいてはお客様となる人との接点が必ず存在します。

その接点を「経路」軸で整理しましょう。

また、「ステージ」とはお客様の状態を表しており、例えば知ったばかりなのか、問い合わせやお試しセット申し込みなど何らかのアクションがあった人なのか、購入アクションをしたかなどが挙げられます。

BtoBではこのステージに商談も入ります。

こうしたお客様が購入というコンバージョンに至るまでの過程を各ステージとして整理し、顧客リストで分類できるようにどの行動をしたらどのステージに該当するのか定義をしてください。

そして各ステージに上がるためにはどれくらいの期間を要するのか、何がきっかけになる傾向にあるのかを経路ごとに把握できるようにしておくと、次のAct(改善)が自然と見えてくるようになります。

 

最後に

PDCAは計画・対策と実行にフォーカスすることで最良の形で回すことができますが、検証の作業に時間を取られたり、実際にどうだったのか検証できるデータすら保持できていないことも多々あります。

情報が不足していては、正しい戦略を立てることができませんので、大事なのは必要な情報を手間なくストックできる仕組みを戦術に取り込むことです。

ではどうしたらそうした計測を手間なくストックできる仕組みが作れるのでしょうか。

この仕組みをPlan(計画)の中に取り込む必要がありますが、その時、見込み客(まだ購買には至っていない「これから客」)とすでに購入のアクションをされた顧客とで分類し、それぞれどういった関係を築ければ、どんなアプローチをすれば収益につながるアクションへと誘導できるのかをCheck(評価)しましょう。

次回は、なるべく手間をかけずにデータを計測させる仕組みの作り方について、「見込み客」「顧客」の2つのに分けてそれぞれご紹介します。

<参考リンク>
エレベーターピッチで新規事業や既存事業の整理力を鍛える!

成果を測る方程式!KGI/KPIを定めた戦略的ビジネス設計

戦術を正しく導く効果測定の方法 -基礎編-

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