PDCAサイクルはもう古い?これからは「DCAPサイクル」~後編~

PDCAサイクルに代わる、DCAPサイクルとは

では、PDCAに代わるもの、「DCAP サイクル」とはどのようなサイクルなのでしょうか。
DCAPもPDCAもそれぞれのアルファベットが持つ意味については変わりなく、それぞれが全て大事な工程であることは明白であり、どれも欠かすことはできません。

このサイクルで課題となるのは、「P(Plan:計画)」をしっかりと立てた上で行動すべきというスタートラインの部分です。計画に時間を取られているうちに、競合に先を越されてしまったり、成功したとしても時間がかかった分はロスト(損失)となります。

それよりは、計画に時間をかけるのではなく、まず実行しながらスピーディーに活動することが重要であり、トライアンドエラーを繰り返し、その後のC(Check:評価)、A(Action:改善)をまず行い、プラン(計画)を作っていく方が効果的だという考え方です。

もちろん、大企業など、トライした後にエラーが発生した際の損害が大きい企業における大きなプロジェクトついては先に計画を立ててから行動する必要があります。一方で、ベンチャー企業や中小企業においては、身軽に戦略を進められることが強みであり、大企業と戦えるポイントとなりますので、DCAPのサイクルで行動する方がベターな戦略と言えるでしょう。

DCAPサイクルの回し方

よりスピーディーな活動が求められる現代では、D(Do:実行)をまず行う必要があるとこれまで述べてきましたが、当然ながら、ただやみくもに行動すれば良いというわけではありません。
ビジネスを進めるには、その方針となる事業戦略があることが必須です。その中では短期的な目標だけでなく、中長期的な目標も必要です。
その目標、戦略に沿った実行アクションであることがまず第一の条件となります。

実行アクションを真っ先に行える企業組織とは、トップダウンタイプよりもボトムアップタイプです。まずは組織のメンバー全員に事業戦略を浸透させ、ポジティブに活動が行われる意欲に溢れた環境を整えることが、一見遠回りのように見えても、実は一番の近道と言えるでしょう。

事業戦略に沿った実行アクションがたくさんされるようになることが大切ですが、それと同時に次のステップであるC(Check:評価)も重要です。
PDCAサイクルの基本として多くの人が理解している通り、実行アクションの結果がどうであったのか評価し、さらに改善することでより高い事業成果を求めていく点についてはPDCAと同じです。
ただし、よりスピーディーな活動を行う必要がある中で、実行アクションがある程度進んでから検証するサイクルでは、現代の理想的なビジネスモデルから見ると不適切となります。

CRMやSFAといったビジネスツールをベースに活動が行える時代の中では、活動を続けているだけで自動的にデータをストックし、いつでも検証できる環境を整えることができます。
こうしたツールの導入はひと昔前までは導入コストがかかるものであり、実質的に大企業のものでした。それも今ではクラウドサービスの進歩により、個人事業主でも簡単に導入できる状況に変わりました。

データベースをストックすることは、企業にとってビジネスを行う基礎的な足場固めです。
こうしたデータベースは検証する際の根拠となりますが、単にストックしていたのでは、いざ検証する時に必要なデータが不足していたり、逆に不要なデータまでストックしてしまいうなど、実行アクションでタイムロスを招くケースは少なくありません。

従って、DCAPサイクルにおいて必要なのは、D(Do:実行)の時から、C(Check:検証)を見据えた活動を行うことです。
実行アクションの段階で、どのように検証するのか、そのKPIを設計し、計測に必要な根拠となるデータは何かを整理しておきます。

データは後から足そうとすると大変手間がかかりますし、不可能なケースも多いため、最初から検証に必要なものを意識したデータベースの構造を用意しておくことで、検証レポートが自動的に取得できます。

データをたくさんとっておけば、見たい指標にいつでもアクセスできます。それで思いつく限りの項目でデータベースを作ろうとしてしまいがちです。しかし、入力の手間を省くためには、必要なデータを最小限に抑えておく必要があります。そうした意味でもC(Check:検証)を意識したD(Do:実行)をすべきです。
検証にかける時間を大幅にカットでき、慣れてくると5分、10分で検証が完了し、すぐ次のアクションにどんどん進んでいくことが可能です。

このCとDの二つのポイントを抑えておくことで、A、Pもスムーズに進み、最適な形でビジネスを成長させるサイクルを回していくことが可能となるのです。

<参考リンク>
PDCAサイクルはもう古い?これからは「DCAPサイクル」~前編~

今さら聞けない「ビジネスフレームワークとは?」を分かりやすく解説

顧客ロイヤリティを測るフレームワーク:Net Promoter Score(NPS)とは

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