マーケティングを学ぶことで変わる未来-フィリップ・コトラー提唱の考え方-

今回は、商品のアイディアやそれをヒットさせるためのマーケティング戦略にまつわる基本を学びます。

ラテラル・マーケティング

フィリップ・コトラーが2003年の書籍「コトラーのマーケティング思考法」で提唱したのがこのラテラル・マーケティングです。

これは水平思考で行うマーケティングのことで、ロジカルシンキングのような規制の枠組みに従って考える垂直思考から離れ、さまざまな角度から自由に思考することで新たな発送を導き出す手法です。

IT化が驚異的なスピードで進み、製品・サービスが急速に普及し、さまざまなニーズを簡単に満たせるような時代の中では、いわゆる教科書通りの論理的なマーケティング手法では新たなチャンスを見つけるみつけることは難しいことから、この非論理的なマーケティング手法であるラテラル・マーケティングを提唱しました。

 

実践編 実際にラテラル・マーケティング思考でアイディアを出してみましょう

ステップ1 フォーカスを選択する

フォーカスとは、思考の対象として注目すべきもの(対象)のことで、その特性をここでは考えます。
例えば花なら「いい香り」「色がきれい」「枯れる」などですね。

ステップ2 水平移動により、ギャップ(刺激)を誘発する

ステップ1であげた特性をひとつ選び出し、変化を加えます。
変化は、「逆転」「代用」「結合」「強調」「除去」「並べ替え」の6つがあります。
例えば、「枯れる」を逆転させると「いつまでも枯れない花」となります。

ステップ3 ギャップを埋める方法を考える(連結する)

ステップ2のいつまでも枯れない花を実現する方法を考えます。

例えば造花や冷凍させた花などがあげられます。

この3つのステップを使って、新しいアイディアを導いていきます。

この手法を使うと、「食べるラー油」や「カジュアル(普段使いの)着物」といった新しい商品につながったり、ビジネスの販売戦略においてボトルネックとなるものもポジティブに変えることも可能になります

 

ホリスティック・マーケティング

フィリップ・コトラーが2002年に著書「コトラー・新・マーケティング原論」で提唱したのがこの「ホリスティック・マーケティング」です。

これは顧客シェア※1や顧客ロイヤリティ※2、顧客生涯価値 ※3を高め、利益と成長を顧客とともに追求することが目的となっており、顧客ロイヤリティを高めて顧客生涯価値をあげるという考えが根底にあります。

顧客の要望を起点に社内外の経営資源をうまく組み合わせて全社的な視点でマーケティングを行います

具体的には次の4つのマーケティング要素を組み合わせていく必要があります。

1 リレーションシップ・マーケティング

顧客や社員、アウトソース、株主などとの関係を強くするマーケティング手法です。

顧客との信頼関係を構築するものとして、「CRM(カスタマー・リレーションシップ・マネジメント」があり、社員やアウトソース、株主との関係を構築する「パートナー・リレーションシップ・マネジメント」があります。

関係を構築することは一朝一夕ではできませんので、実現は大変ですが企業が長期的に存続するためには欠かせないマーケティング活動です。

2 統合型マーケティング

製品・価格・流通・プロモーションのマーケティングミックス※4に加えて販売促進やダイレクトマーケティング※5、対面販売なども加えた統合型のコミュニケーション・ミックス※6をします。

3 インターナル・マーケティング

社内向けのマーケティング手法で、自社の役割を認識できるビジョンの提供や経営幹部へのマーケティング教育などがあります。

4 社会的責任マーケティング

いかに社会的責任を果たしていくかという視点からおこなうマーケティング活動のことです。

※1 顧客シェア:顧客が購入したある商品のうち、自社の商品が占める割合
※2 顧客ロイヤリティ:顧客があるブランドや商品、またはサービスに対して感じる「信頼」や「愛着」のこと
※3 顧客生涯価値:一人の顧客が取引期間を通じて企業にもたらす利益(価値)のこと。(LTVともいう)
※4 マーケティングミックス:マーケティング戦略において、望ましい反応を市場から引き出すために、マーケティング・ツールを組み合わせること
※5 ダイレクトマーケティング:顧客個人と直接的なコミュニケーションをとるマーケティング手法のこと
※6 コミュニケーション・ミックス:マーケティング目標を追求するためのコミュニケーション手段の組み合わせのこと

最後に

3回に分けてマーケティングの基本を押さえていきましたがいかがでしたでしょうか。

社会経験の浅い新入社員などの場合、事業計画や販売戦略といったことにまで意識が働かずマーケティングを学ぶ重要性は理解しがたいですが、経験を重ねたビジネスマンであればあるほど、その重要性は理解しやすいでしょう。

マーケティングの原理は今回ご紹介したいくつかの手法や考え方がベースとなり様々な方法がフィリップ・コトラーをはじめとしたマーケティングの先人たちによって生み出されています。

マーケティングを抑えた人は、企業にとっての人財価値が非常に高いものとなりますので、ぜひ引き続きインプットを続けていただければと思います。

<参考リンク>
マーケティング無くして、ビジネスでの成功は無い ~マーケティング・オートメーション~前編~

効率的なマーケティング活動を実現するおすすめクラウドツール

顧客ロイヤリティを測るフレームワーク:Net Promoter Score(NPS)とは

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