サラリーマンとフリーランスの違いとは

「働き方改革」「多様化された働き方」と、働き方に関する話題が耐えない昨今、独立してフリーランスになる人が増加しています。2015年に913万人だったフリーランス人口は2018年には1,119万人へ約200万人の増加を遂げ、その市場規模は20兆円を超えるほどに成長しています。

しかし実際フリーランスとサラリーマンの違いは何なのか、詳しく知らない人も多いのではないでしょうか。今回は2つの業態の違いについて紹介します。

1.組織で働くか一人で働くか

サラリーマンとフリーランスの一番大きな違いとして、組織に雇用されているか否かという点が挙げられます。

サラリーマンは会社や自治体などに雇用され、決まった時間に働き、決まった報酬を受け取ります。基本的には出勤日・休暇ともに指定されており、好き勝手に休んだり働いたりすることはできません。
また、会社組織で扱うビジネスの規模が大きく、チームを組んで何億何十億といった巨大なビジネスに携わることができるのがサラリーマンの魅力の一つであると言えるでしょう。

フリーランスは特定の組織に属さず、好きなときに働き、好きなときに休むというようなスケジュールを自分自身で設定することができます。その代わり働かなければ一銭にもならず、収入は減るばかりです。
扱うビジネスの規模も個人で扱える規模になることが多く、年間で数千万扱えると、十分大きなビジネスという規模感と言えます。

2.安定した給与か成果に応じた報酬か

サラシーマンはその業務の多寡に関わらず、給与という形で定期的に安定した収入を得ることができます。

仕事がない時期でも安定した給料がもらえる反面、もし担当している案件が大成功し何十億という利益が出たとしても、それは会社のものになるため個人の収入に影響があるわけではありません。報奨金が出ても数十~数百万円程度でしょう。

フリーランスは収入全てが自分のものとなるため、成果に応じて比例して収入が上がります。
扱える案件が数千万規模だったとしても、その成果は全て自分の懐に入るため、より大きな成功を目指し、フリーランスを目指す人が跡を絶ちません。しかし同時に成功しなければアルバイトよりも低い収入になる恐れもあるリスクを背負っていることは忘れてはいけません。

3.社会的な保障と信用の差は大きい

収入面だけ見たらフリーランスのほうが良いように聞こえるかもしれませんが、サラリーマンとフリーランスの決定的な差は、社会的な保証と信用の差と言えます。

フリーランスが持つ「国民健康保険」「国民年金保険」に比べ、サラリーマンが持つ「社会健康保険」「厚生年金保険」は会社が半分負担してくれることから従業員本人の負担が非常に軽く済み、また施設優待等の福利厚生や積立額の増加といった国民保険にはない特典があります。

また信用面でも大きく差があり、フリーランスを含む「自営業」は社会的に安定していないと認識されることがあり、賃貸住宅の審査に通過しにくかったり、クレジットカードが作れないといったこともあります。

フリーランス人口が増えているとはいえ、まだ「自営業」全体の社会的地位の向上には時間がかかるようです。

サラリーマンとフリーランスはどちらが優れているというようなものではなく、働き方の種類に過ぎません。
自分自身にとってどの働き方が合っているのか、幸せに健康に働けるのはどの働き方がいいのかというような観点から、どちらの道を選ぶのかを決めていくのがよいでしょう。

<参考リンク>
TP Interview 002:日替わりBar Tonzura オーナー 櫻井謙充(前編)

趣味を活かして、起業したらうまくいく!フリーランスになるには?

経験・資格がない人ができる起業とは?

フリーランスで働くということ

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